Learning and development in the early years of a child's life can have lasting impacts throughout the life course. This research examines the early development trajectories of children from CALD backgrounds in Australia by exploring the existing evidence base and drawing on a detailed analysis of data from the Australian Early Development Census. The research found that children from CALD backgrounds are more likely to developmentally vulnerable at school entry than other children and much less likely to attend most types of early childhood education (e.g. preschool, playgroups). The report makes a series of recommendations aimed at reducing developmental disparities among children to secure Australia's social, cultural and economic future.